عنوان مقاله [English]
Ghaem Magham Farahani is considered one of the great politicians of the Qajar period and has several writings, the most important of which is called Manshat. Manshat is a letter written in a simple and fluent style during the bureaucracy period and as a literary genre it has the capacity to be studied based on the theory of application of the principles of literature. Therefore, in this study, the theory of literature in the family letters of the deputy in the source is examined and analyzed in order to evaluate his personality and the way of communication with family members. Numerous theories have been expressed about the principles of literature, in this article, from Brown and Levinson's theory, based on the strategies of negative literature and positive literature, direct and indirect speeches; And Calper's theory has been used in relation to the strategy of positive etiquette and negative etiquette, and direct violation. The results of this research which was done by descriptive-analytical method; It shows that Farahani's deputy has benefited a lot from positive literature for his audience; And he has used negative literature to express his interest and has threatened someone less. Positive etiquette violations based on lack of empathy or inappropriate labels account for a small percentage, and negative etiquette violations and direct etiquette violations are very few in these letters. He also uses indirect expression as a reason for polite behavior; It is used more than direct expression.