Reflection of torture and transformation as a tool of depersonalization and homogenization in the novels of "Rud e Ravi" and "Mortelle"

Document Type : Research Paper




This study has selected the novel "Rud e Ravi" written by Abu Torab Khosravi as a model of traditional totalitarian society and "Mortelle" written by Christopher Frank as a model of totalitarian society in the modern era. The research method is based on the opinions of thinkers who have studied the individual / subject relationship with the system of domination and objectification methods. In explaining the political function of totalitarian systems on individuals, it has used the views of thinkers such as Michel Foucault, Hannah Arendt, Rigel, Haywood, and in classifying body types as objects of power, has been based on the views of Cregan and Le Breton.
 The study of the “Rud e Ravi” shows that the process of depersonalization and homogenization in a traditional society takes place through torture and display of it, And in the “Motelle” the totalitarian system in the modern age, along with the torture and persecution that usually takes place in non-public places, transforms the thoughts and transforms them into a general identity. But torture in sectarian-traditional systems has more doctrinal and religious functions and in the totalitarian system of the modern period, it is done for political purposes.
What both novels have in common is the inviolability of principles, the loss of privacy, the confrontation with love as a manifestation of individuality, and in a word, the removal of any manifestation of individualism and the transformation of individuals into object bodies, And what distinguishes the two novels is the degree of objectivity and subjectivity of the individual in the world of novels.


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